The Role of Renewable Energy, Immigration and Real Income in Environmental Sustainability Target. Evidence from Europe Largest States
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In spite of the continued deployment of technologies, innovations toward addressing the challenges of global warming, forecasting and sustaining quality environment have remained the herculean endeavour of the advanced states. Also, being migrants' destinations, resulting from the availability of economic opportunities, the target of attaining low-carbon, energy efficiency, and the cleaner atmospheric environment by these advanced economies is further bewildered. In that light, we investigate the impact of renewable energy consumption and migration on the carbon dioxide emissions of the panel of European Union's largest economies of France, Germany, and the United Kingdom over the period of 1990-2016. The consistency of the group fully modified least square and dynamic ordinary least square presents elasticity of -0.13 and -0.14 respectively for the nexus of renewables and carbon emissions. Similarly, 0.04 and 0.05 are the respective elasticity of the two models for the nexus of migration and carbon emissions. In support of extant literature, the nexus of carbon emissions with gross domestic product and consumer price index are significant, and respectively positive and negative. In addition, the study reveals evidence of Granger causality with feedback between renewable energy consumption and carbon emissions, and between consumer price index and carbon emissions. On the other hand, a unidirectional Granger causality running from migration to carbon emissions is observed. In practical term, the study presents policy frameworks for the examined countries and other advanced nations. The implementation of the presented policy pathways are potentially geared toward a forecastable, sustainable environmental quality and energy efficiency targets.
SourceSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
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